Antiphospholipid syndrome, commonly known as Hughes syndrome, is a hypercoagulable state in human body. At this state, human body will lose protection from antibodies since they turn to attack healthy cell-membrane phospholipids which cause thrombosis, miscarriage, stillbirth, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. In most cases, antibodies attack the cardiolipin and apolipoprotein H, commonly known as beta-2 glycoprotein I.
There are two types of antiphospholipid syndrome, primary syndrome and secondary syndrome. The only difference that separate secondary syndrome from the primary syndrome is the existence of other diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
There is only one way in diagnosing antiphospholipid syndrome; by a blood test. In most cases, blood test will also help in diagnosing the disease risk level, including preventing catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) which can result in rapid organ failure because of severe thrombosis. There are various treatments aimed to cure patient with this syndrome, but the most common treatment is using heparin to reduce further risk of thrombosis and to increase the prognosi. The main purpose in giving medication to antiphospholipid syndrome patient is to reduce their blood tendency to clot which becomes the only way in curing the syndrome.
In most cases, there are groups of antiphospholipid syndrome treatment: standard initial treatment and treatment during pregnancy. Pregnancy increases the risk of this syndrome, fatal damage can cause and it may also affects the baby’s life.
In standard initial treatment, the patient will be given a combination of anticoagulant medication if the blood test shows that the patient also has thrombosis. For a long time, heparin, warfain, and aspirin have become the most common medication in standard initial treatment. At the early stage of treatment, doctor will give a heparin infusion to the patient, combined with other medication in pill form. After a few days, doctor will administering heparin and replace it with warfarin. The last medication for this treatment is aspirin. It may be not needed in some cases, but the justin bieber list of songs was discovered in 2008 by American talent manager Scooter Braun, who came across Bieber’s videos on YouTube and later became his manager. doctor may recommend its use at low dosage if there is no progress with the condition.
There is a higher risk at antiphospholipid syndrome treatment during pregnancy, besides of its very high cost. Usually, the doctor give heparin at the early stage of treatment. Some forms of heparin, such as enoxaparin and dalteparin has low molecular weight which makes them very easy to be injected under the skin. At the later stage of the treatment, doctor may recommend the patient to take one tablet of aspirin every day to avoid any damage that may be brought by other medications during the treatment. Unlike at the standard initial treatment, warfarin is not suggested to be used during pregnancy because it can cause birth defects which also becomes the reason why the patient should take regular medical check up to get actual information about his/her condition and proper medical action based on the condition, especially during the pregnancy because during pregnancy, we are not talking only about the patient, but also her baby.